AVMA Collections: Rabies


Single-topic compilations of the information shaping our profession


Updated December 2010

 
In this collection:
Summary:  Text | Audio 

Epidemiology/surveillance

Zoonosis management

Postexposure prophylaxis

Vaccination methods

Vaccination safety and efficacy

Additional resources

 
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Epidemiology/surveillance

 
 
Epidemiologic characteristics of rabies virus variants in dogs and cats in the United States, 1999 Highlights:
•   Rabies virus sampled from 78 dogs, 230 cats
•   Only one vaccine failure reported
•   Most animals were owned and unvaccinated
Educational campaigns for owners may be useful
Jennifer H. McQuiston, Pamela A. Yager, Jean S. Smith, Charles E. Rupprecht
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1939-1942. June 15, 2001.
 
Trends in national surveillance for rabies among bats in the United States (1993-2000) Highlights:
•   Studied 3 bat species linked to rabies in humans
•   Human-linked species most likely to test positive
•   Positive results highest in fall, southwestern US
Species a stronger link to risk than season, region
Alison M. Mondul, John W. Krebs, James E. Childs
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:633-639. March 1, 2003.
 
Epidemiology of rabies in skunks in Texas Highlights:
•   Studied data from rabid skunks from 1953-2007
•   Number of rabid skunks peaked in March, April
•   Humans 36-50 years of age most often exposed
Most human exposures did not involve a bite
Ernest H. Oertli, Pamela J. Wilson, Patrick R. Hunt, Thomas J. Sidwa, Rodney E. Rohde
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;234:616-620. March 1, 2009.
 
Survey of wildlife rehabilitators regarding rabies vector species Highlights:
•   210 North Carolina wildlife rehabilitators surveyed
•   Results showed inconsistent knowledge of rabies
•   80% believed some peers rehabilitating illegally
Educational efforts for rehabilitators important
Robert L. Schopler, Aron J. Hall, Peter Cowen
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1568-1572. November 15, 2005.
 
 

Zoonosis management

 
 
Rabies preexposure vaccination among veterinarians and at-risk staff Highlights:
•   At-risk workers within a county were surveyed
•   Vaccination histories, related data obtained
•   Age, length of employment linked to vaccination
Cost of preexposure vaccine series may be barrier
Rosalie T. Trevejo
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1647-1650. December 1, 2000.
 
Decision-based evaluation of recommendations for preexposure rabies vaccination Highlights:
•   Vaccination recommended for persons at high risk
•   Frequent boosters associated with adverse events
•   Successive boosters can cause titers to plateau
Routine boosters no longer recommended
Kristy O. Murray, Paul M. Arguin
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:188-191. January 15, 2000.
 
Infection control practices and zoonotic disease risks among veterinarians in the United States Highlights:
•   US veterinary practitioners randomly surveyed
•   Generally, protective measures not being taken
•   Absence of written policy linked to low awareness
Written infection control policies may be beneficial
Jennifer G. Wright, Sherry Jung, Robert C. Holman, Nina N. Marano, Jennifer H. McQuiston
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;232:1863-1872. June 15, 2008.
 
Compendium of Veterinary Standard Precautions for Zoonotic Disease Prevention in Veterinary Personnel Highlights:
•   Veterinary infection controls are inadequate
•   868 of 1,415 human pathogens are zoonotic
•   Veterinary Standard Precautions (VSP) outlined
Use of VSP would minimize exposure to zoonoses
Brigid L. Elchos, Joni M. Scheftel, Bryan Cherry, Emilio E. DeBess, Sharon G. Hopkins, Jay F. Levine, Carl J. Williams
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;233:415-432. August 1, 2008.
 
 

Postexposure prophylaxis

 
 
Evaluation of a postexposure rabies prophylaxis protocol for domestic animals in Texas: 2000?2009 Highlights:
•   Zoonotic incident reports of 1,104 animals studied
•   Exposed animals were vaccinated, isolated
•   No postexposure prophylaxis failures recorded
Protocol effective for unvaccinated animals
Pamela J. Wilson, Ernest H. Oertli, Patrick R. Hunt, Thomas J. Sidwa
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:1395-1401. December 15, 2010.
 
Postexposure rabies prophylaxis protocol for domestic animals and epidemiologic characteristics of rabies vaccination failures in Texas: 1995-1999 Highlights:
•   Postexposure rabies prophylaxis cases studied
•   Protocol included immediate vaccination, boosters
•   Found 4 failures in 830 postexposure vaccinations
Postexposure rabies prophylaxis can be effective
Pamela J. Wilson, Keith A. Clark
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:522-525. February 15, 2001.
 
Postexposure prophylaxis for prevention of rabies in dogs Highlights:
•   29 dogs were experimentally infected with rabies
•   Vaccine alone after exposure was not protective
•   Monoclonal antibodies with vaccine was protective
Revealed potential use of monoclonal antibodies
Cathleen A. Hanlon, Michael Niezgoda, Charles E. Rupprecht
Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1096-1100. August 2002.
 
Animal bite epidemiology and surveillance for rabies postexposure prophylaxis Highlights:
•  16,000 animal bite reports in Pennsylvania studied
•   Highest incidence in children under 5 years of age
•   Cat bite victims more likely to receive prophylaxis
Community interventions should be enhanced
Dale A. Moore, William M. Sischo, Allison Hunter, Toni Miles
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:190-194. July 15, 2000.
 
 

Vaccination methods

 
 
Evaluation of oral rabies vaccination programs for control of rabies epizootics in coyotes and gray foxes: 1995-2003 Highlights:
•   Two wildlife rabies epizootics in Texas studied
•   Edible baits used to distribute oral rabies vaccine
•   Vaccine bait programs halted expansion
Oral rabies vaccine is effective in coyotes, foxes
Thomas J. Sidwa, Pamela J. Wilson, Guy M. Moore, Ernest H. Oertli, Bradley N. Hicks, Rodney E. Rohde, David H. Johnston
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:785-792. September 1, 2005.
 
Economic evaluation of an oral rabies vaccination program for control of a domestic dog-coyote rabies epizootic: 1995-2006 Highlights:
•   Benefit-cost analysis of Texas program studied
•   Oral rabies vaccine did control spread
•   Economic benefits 3-13x greater than costs
Key economic variables identified for future
Stephanie A. Shwiff, Katy N. Kirkpatrick, Ray T. Sterner
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;233:1736-1741. December 1, 2008.
 
Cost of distributing oral raccoon-variant rabies vaccine in Ohio: 1997-2000 Highlights:
•   Oral rabies vaccine placed in fishmeal bait
•   Bait distributed by foot, vehicle, aircraft
•   Cost of ground baiting consistently less than air
Studying cost may lead to more efficient methods
Pirouz Foroutan, Martin I. Meltzer, Kathleen A. Smith
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:27-32. January 1, 2002.
 
Effect of maternal immunity on the immune response to oral vaccination against rabies in young foxes Highlights:
•   Cubs of vaccinated, unvaccinated vixens studied
•   Cubs given oral vaccine, tested, inoculated
•   Immune inhibition significant, long lasting
Reconsider oral vaccines in vaccinated groups
Thomas F. Müller, Peter Schuster, Ad C. Vos, Thomas Selhorst, Ulf D. Wenzel, Andreas M. Neubert
Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1154-1158. July 2001.
 
Effects of vaccine route and dosage on protection from rabies after intracerebral challenge in mice Highlights:
•   Mice were vaccinated by IP, IM, and SC routes
•   Subjects then challenged intracerebrally with virus
•   IM route yielded highest response, protection
Recommend modify tests to model target species
Peter S. Wunderli, David W. Dreesen, Timothy J. Miller, George M. Baer
Am J Vet Med 2003;64:491-498. April 2003.
 
 

Vaccination safety and efficacy

 
Postmarketing surveillance of rabies vaccines for dogs to evaluate safety and efficacy Highlights:
•   Studied adverse events reported over 3 years
•   246 reports involved rabies vaccine
•   Vomiting, facial swelling most commonly reported
Rabies vaccine event rate similar to other vaccines
Timothy S. Frana, Nancy E. Clough, Donna M. Gatewood, Charles E. Rupprecht
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;;232:1000-1002. April 1, 2008.
 
Incidence of adverse events in ferrets vaccinated with distemper or rabies vaccine: 143 cases (1995-2001) Highlights:
•   Records of 143 vaccinated ferrets studied
•   13 ferrets had total of 14 adverse events
•   Most events occurred when both vaccines given
Ferrets may be at high risk for adverse events
Cheryl B. Greenacre
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:663-665. September 2003.
 
Incidence of and risk factors for adverse events associated with distemper and rabies vaccine administration in ferrets Highlights:
•   Records of 3,587 vaccinated ferrets studied
•   30 adverse events were recorded over 2 years
•   Vomiting and diarrhea most commonly reported
Adverse events linked to number of vaccinations
George E. Moore, Nita W. Glickman, Michael P. Ward, Kathy S. Engler, Hugh B. Lewis, Lawrence T. Glickman
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:909-912. March 15, 2005.
 
Association between cancer chemo- therapy and canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and rabies virus antibody titers in tumor-bearing dogs Highlights:
•   31 client-owned dogs with cancers studied
•   Titers measured before, after chemotherapy
•   Significant changes in titers not detected
Prior immunity not compromised by chemotherapy
Carolyn J. Henry, Dudley L. McCaw, Kenny V. Brock, Aaron M. Stoker, Jeff W. Tyler, Deborah J. Tate, Mary Lynn Higginbotham
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1238-1241. November 1, 2001.
 
Effect of heterogeneity of rabies virus strain and challenge route on efficacy of inactivated rabies vaccines in mice Highlights:
•   Accuracy of standard potency test questioned
•   Studied effect of route, virus strain on efficacy
•   Incubation period dependent on route, dose, strain
Supports proposal for new rabies potency test
Peter S. Wunderli, David W. Dreesen, Timothy J. Miller, George M. Baer
Am J Vet Res 2003;64:499-505. April 2003.
 
AVMA Council on Biologic and Therapeutic Agents' report on cat and dog vaccines Highlights:
•   Comprehensive review of information conducted
•   4 panels of experts convened to form consensus
•   No vaccine protocol fits every situation
Veterinarians should develop tailored programs
Donald J. Klingborg, David R. Hustead, Elizabeth A. Curry-Galvin, Nigel R. Gumley, Steven C. Henry, Fairfield T. Bain, Michael A. Paul, Dawn M. Boothe, K. Shawn Blood, David L. Huxsoll, Donald L. Reynolds, M. Gatz Riddell Jr, James S. Reid, Charles R. Short
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1401-1407. November 15, 2002.
 
The 2006 American Association of Feline Practitioners Feline Vaccine Advisory Panel Report Highlights:
•   Concerns about vaccine safety for cats increasing
•   Core, noncore vaccines defined by the panel
•   Summaries of vaccination provided as guides
Vaccinate each cat based on risk vs. benefit
James R. Richards, Thomas H. Elston, Richard B. Ford, Rosalind M. Gaskell, Katrin Hartmann, Kate F. Hurley, Michael R. Lappin, Julie K. Levy, Ilona Rodan, Margie Scherk, Ronald D. Schultz, Andrew H. Sparkes
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229:1405-1441. November 1, 2006.
 
 

Additional resources

 
 
Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2008
Ben Sun, Michael Auslander, Catherine M. Brown, Lisa Conti, Paul Ettestad, Mira J. Leslie, Faye E. Sorhage
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;232:1478-1486. May 15, 2008.
 

View article   (PDF, 256 KB) 

Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2007
Ben Sun, Michael Auslander, Lisa Conti, Paul Ettestad, Mira J. Leslie, Faye E. Sorhage
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;230:833-840. March 15, 2007.
 

View article   (PDF, 196 KB) 

Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2006
Mira J. Leslie, Michael Auslander, Lisa Conti, Paul Ettestad, Faye E. Sorhage, Ben Sun
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;228:858-864. March 15, 2006.
 

View article   (PDF, 85 KB) 

Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2005
Suzanne R. Jenkins, Mira J. Leslie, Michael Auslander, Lisa Conti, Paul Ettestad, Faye E. Sorhage, Ben Sun
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1304-1310. April 15, 2005.
 

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Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2004
Suzanne R. Jenkins, Michael Auslander, Lisa Conti, Mira J. Leslie, Faye E. Sorhage
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:216-222. January 15, 2004.
 

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Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2003
Suzanne R. Jenkins, Michael Auslander, Lisa Conti, William B. Johnston, Mira J. Leslie, Faye E. Sorhage
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:156-161. January 15, 2003.
 

View article   (PDF, 257 KB) 

Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2002
Suzanne R. Jenkins, Michael Auslander, Lisa Conti, William B. Johnston, Mira J. Leslie, Faye E. Sorhage
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:44-48. July 1, 2002.
 

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Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2001
Suzanne R. Jenkins, Michael Auslander, Lisa Conti, Robert H. Johnson, Mira J. Leslie, Faye E. Sorhage
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:26-31. January 1, 2001.
 

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Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2000
Suzanne R. Jenkins, Michael Auslander, Lisa Conti, Robert H. Johnson, Mira J. Leslie, Faye E. Sorhage
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:338-343. February 1, 2000.
 

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Model Rabies Control Ordinance
Oversight: AVMA Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine
http://www.avma.org/issues/policy/rabies_control.asp

Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2009
Jesse D. Blanton, Dustyn Palmer, Charles E. Rupprecht
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:646-657. September 15, 2010.
 

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Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2008
Jesse D. Blanton, Kis Robertson, Dustyn Palmer, Charles E. Rupprecht
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;235:676-689. September 15, 2009.
 

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Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2007
Jesse D. Blanton, Dustyn Palmer, Kira A. Christian, Charles E. Rupprecht
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;233:884-897. September 15, 2008.
 

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Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2006
Jesse D. Blanton, Cathleen A. Hanlon, Charles E. Rupprecht
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;231:540-556. August 15, 2007.
 
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Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2005
Jesse D. Blanton, John W. Krebs, Cathleen A. Hanlon, Charles E. Rupprecht
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229:1897-1911. December 15, 2006.
 

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Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2004
John W. Krebs, Eric J. Mandel, David L. Swerdlow, Charles E. Rupprecht
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1912-1925. December 15, 2005.
 

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Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2003
John W. Krebs, Eric J. Mandel, David L. Swerdlow, Charles E. Rupprecht
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1837-1849. December 15, 2004.
 

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Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2002
John W. Krebs, John T. Wheeling, James E. Childs
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1736-1748. December 15, 2003.
 

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Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2001
John W. Krebs, Heather R. Noll, Charles E. Rupprecht, James E. Childs
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1690-1701. December 15, 2002.
 

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Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2000
John W. Krebs, Alison M. Mondul, Charles E. Rupprecht, James E. Childs
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1687-1699. December 15, 2001.
 
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