Scope of Practice: Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) and other practice act exemptions

Updated May 2019

The following chart summarizes key provisions of state veterinary practice acts and accompanying regulations relating to common CAVM treatments such as chiropractic, acupuncture and physical therapy. The chart also lists other exemptions from the definition of veterinary medicine, such as those for animal owners, farming/livestock practices, artificial insemination, equine teeth floating/cleaning, and embryo removal or transfer.

A handful of states do not have provisions specifically addressing CAVM. In these states, be sure to read carefully the state's general definition of veterinary medicine, as well as the definition of scope of practice of other licensed professions such as chiropractic and physical therapy.

Please keep in mind that these are general summaries only, and for a comprehensive analysis of practice act scope and exemptions in a particular state, you are strongly advised to review the full text of the statute and regulations, and/or consult a local attorney knowledgeable in this field. The current laws and regulations can be found on most state legislative web sites.

State veterinary medical associations are also excellent sources of information about their state's practice act.

Also note that laws and regulations are amended occasionally, so be sure to be working with the current version.

STATE INCLUDED IN THE PRACTICE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE EXEMPTIONS
Alabama Acupuncture
Dentistry
Animal psychology
Animal chiropractic
Theriogenology
Surgery including cosmetic)
Any manual, mechanical, biological, or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
Removingembryo to cryopreserve, transplant, or implant
Removing embryo to cryopreserve, transplant, or implant
Animal owner or his regular employee

Animal massage by a massage therapist under the direction of a licensed veterinarian
Alaska Any manual, mechanical, biological, or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
Surgery
Dentistry
Artificial insemination
Farrier

Routine Farming or Animal Husbandry Performed by Animal Owner or Employee
Arizona Veterinary surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
Acupuncture
Manipulation
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Treating an animal with no compensation
Animal owner or employee

Certified equine dental practitioners under the general supervision of a licensed veterinarian
Arkansas Acupuncture
Dentistry
Animal Psychology
Animal Chiropractic
Theriogenology
Veterinary Surgery (including cosmetic)
Any manual, mechanical, biological, or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Routine accepted livestock management practices without compensation
Animal owner or employee
Horseshoeing
Training
Selling medicines for the treatment of animal diseases
Collecting, preparing or freezing semen
Nonsurgical artificial insemination
A licensed chiropractor certified by the American Veterinary Chiropractic Association from performing chiropractic upon animals
Livestock embryo transfer or transplant
Livestock pregnancy determination
California Veterinary Surgery
Veterinary Dentistry
Performs any manual procedure for the diagnosis of pregnancy, sterility, or infertility upon livestock or Equidae
Any person may utilize cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice, or toothbrushes on an animal's teeth
Gratuitous assistance to owner
Animal owner or employee
Determination as to status of pregnancy, sterility, infertility of livestock, equine, food animals at time of insemination, if free of charge
Animal Chiropractic by a licensed chiropractor under the direct supervision of a veterinarian
Colorado Artificial insemination
Ova transplantation
Pregnancy Testing
Correcting sterility or infertility
Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
Transrectal procedures, embryo transfer, uterine lavages, and reproductive procedures
Accepted livestock management practices
Animal owner or employee
Animal massage
Animal Chiropractic
Physical therapy
Any person may assist in a surgical procedure under
the immediate supervision of a licensed veterinarian, who is
responsible for the person's performance
Teeth cleaning or preventive dental procedures that are limited to the utilization of cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice, or toothbrushes on an animal's teeth.
Connecticut Surgery
Dentistry
Euthanizing of animals in accordance with applicable state and federal drug laws by the Connecticut Humane Society
Teeth floating
Delaware Pregnancy Testing
Correcting sterility or infertility
Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Accepted livestock management practices
Animal owner or employee
Support activities under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian
District of Columbia Surgery An employee or agent of the federal or District government while performing his or her official duties provided, that a person exempt under this paragraph shall not perform surgical operations
Florida Performing any manual procedure for the diagnosis of or treatment for pregnancy or fertility or infertility of animals
Surgery
Acupuncture
Obstetrics
Dentistry
Physical Therapy
Radiology
Theriogenology
Other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Animal owner or employee
Part-time or temporary basis hires, or independent contractors hired by an owner to assist with herd management and animal husbandry tasks for herd and flock animals, including:

Castration,
Dehorning,
Parasite control, and
Debeaking

Person hired on a part-time or temporary basis, or as an independent contractor, by an owner to provide:
Farriery and
Manual hand floating of teeth on equines
Out-of-state veterinarians practicing temporarily in the state
Georgia Acupuncture
Acutherapy
Acupressure
Homeopathy
Manual or manipulative therapy
Nutraceutical therapy
Phytotherapy
Dentistry
Manual or mechanical adjustment procedures
Physical therapy
Veterinary Surgery
Diagnostic veterinary pathology
Any manual, mechanical, biological, or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility

Obstetrics
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Using cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice, toothbrushes, or similar items to clean an animal's teeth

Acceptable livestock management practices including:
Castration of food animals,
Dehorning without the use of prescription drugs or surgical closure of wounds,
Hoof Trimming or Shoeing,
Docking,
Ear Notching,
Removing Needle Teeth,
Pregnancy Testing,
Implanting electronic identification devices in small companion animals,
Artificial insemination

Any other licensed or registered health care provider utilizing his or her special skills, or any person whose expertise is good for animals
Animal owner or employee
Non-surgical embryo removal
Testing and evaluation of semen
Soft tissue animal massage or other forms of soft tissue animal manipulation
Aquaculture or raniculture management practices
Farriery
Hawaii Surgery
Dentistry
Animal owner or employee
Farmers assisting each other with husbandry practices
Idaho Surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Artificial insemination
Pregnancy Testing
Fertility Evaluation
Embryo Transplant
Fresh Semen Grading
Farmer, rancher, or feedlot operator and employees
Animal owner or employee
Artificial insemination of domestic animals
Horseshoeing or Hoof Trimming
Using cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice or toothbrushes to clean an animal's teeth
Allied health professional participating in procedure within his/her scope of practice and under direct supervision of actively licensed veterinarian
Illinois Surgery
Dentistry

Complementary, alternative, or integrative veterinary medical procedures including:

Veterinary Acupuncture,
Acutherapy,
Acupressure,
Veterinary Homeopathy
Veterinary manual or manipulative therapy or therapy based on techniques practiced in:

Osteopathy,
Chiropractic medicine,
Physical medicine and therapy
Veterinary nutraceutical therapy
Veterinary phytotherapy

Any manual or mechanical procedure for reproductive management, including the diagnosis or treatment of pregnancy, sterility, or infertility
Animal owner or employee
Livestock Management Practices including:

Dehorning,
Castration,
Emasculation,
Docking of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Goats, and Swine,
Artificial Insemination,
Drawing of Semen
Member in good standing of another licensed or regulated profession acting with informed consent from the client and under direct or indirect supervision and control of a veterinarian

An individual providing equine dentistry services requested by a veterinarian, an owner or an owner's agent
Indiana Surgery
Dentistry
Complimentary or alternative therapy
Pregnancy, Sterility, or Infertility Diagnosis
Chiropractic
Acupuncture
Equine massage therapy
Animal owner or regular employee
Non-veterinarian licensed professionals can practice on animals when asked by a veterinarian and within a valid VCPR, with direct or indirect contact with veterinarian
Iowa Veterinary Surgery
Veterinary Obstetrics
Veterinary Dentistry
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Animal owner or employee
Accepted livestock practices including:

Dehorning,
Castrating,
Docking,
Pregnancy Testing,
Clipping Swine Needle Teeth,
Ear Notching,
Branding,
Artificial insemination of livestock and poultry,
Collecting or evaluating semen from livestock or poultry
Kansas Acupuncture
Dentistry
Animal Psychology
Animal Chiropractic
Theriogenology
Veterinary Surgery (Including Cosmetic Surgery)
Any manual, mechanical, biological or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
All other branches of veterinary medicine
Animal owner or regular employee
Independent contractor under direct or indirect supervision of veterinarian as specified by regulation
Kentucky Any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy, or for correcting sterility or infertility

Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Embryo Transfer
Dentistry
Acupuncture
Laser therapy
Manipulation
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Animal owner or regular employee
Castration and dehorning of farm animals
Trainer, agent or herdsman in context of veterinary-patient relationship

Embryo transfers from any person who holds a postgraduate degree in reproductive physiology or a related field, and who has performed embryo transfers in Kentucky during the five (5) years immediately preceding July 14, 1992
Louisiana Any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy, or for correcting sterility, or infertility

Veterinary surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches of veterinary medicine
Accepted livestock management practices:

Artificial insemination
Nonsurgical impregnation of farm animals with frozen embryos
Collection of semen for quality evaluation of male equine or bovine species

Animal owner or regular employee

Registered Equine Dentists
Laypeople and registered veterinary technicians employed by a licensed veterinarian may perform the rasping or floating of molar, premolar, and canine teeth and the removal of deciduous incisor and premolar teeth or caps.

Alternative and collaborative therapy with veterinary supervision includes:

Ultrasonography,
Magnetic field therapy,
Holistic medicine,
Homeopathy,
Animal chiropractic treatment,
Animal acupuncture,
Animal physical therapy,
Animal massage therapy,
Laser therapy,
Ophthalmology,
Cardiology,
Neurology,
Radiology, and
Oncology
Maine Acupuncture
Dentistry
Homeopathic procedures
Chiropractic procedures
Physical or Massage Therapy
Surgery (including elective surgery)
Any manual, mechanical, biological or chemical procedure used for pregnancy testing or correcting sterility or infertility
Obstetrics
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Accepted livestock practices
Owner or animal caretaker
Commercially performed artificial insemination
Horseshoeing and trimming feet
Maryland Surgery (including cosmetic surgery)
Dentistry
Any manual procedure upon an animal for the diagnosis or treatment of sterility or infertility of the animal
Animal owner
Accepted livestock management practices
A farrier or a person actively engaged in the art or profession of horseshoeing as long as his actions are limited to the art of horseshoeing or trimming and maintaining horse hooves
Teeth floating (files) or removing caps
Scaling or Cleaning Teeth
Acupuncture
Massachusetts Surgery
Diagnosis
Animal Owner or Employee
Accepted livestock management practices
Veterinary or surgical works
The giving of advice to a neighbor by a person who does not hold himself out as a veterinarian or receive compensation
Michigan Surgery
Diagnosis
Animal owner
A licensee who holds a license other than a health profession subfield license may delegate to a licensed or unlicensed individual who is otherwise qualified by education, training, or experience the performance of selected acts, tasks, or functions where the acts, tasks, or functions fall within the scope of practice of the licensee's profession and will be performed under the licensee's supervision
Minnesota Surgery
Obstetrics
Pathology
Radiology
Dentistry
Ophthalmology
Cardiology
Dermatology
Laboratory Animal Medicine
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Determination of pregnancy
Correction of sterility or infertility
Dehorning cattle and goats
Castration of cattle, swine, goats and sheep
Docking sheep
Animal owner or regular employee
Registered and licensed chiropractor
Equine teeth floating
Farriery – Licenses for are issued by the racing authority pursuant to rule – not mentioned outside of racing
Mississippi Complementary, alternative and integrative therapies including:

Acupuncture
Acutherapy
Acupressure
Homeopathy
Osteopathy
Chiropractic
Physical therapy
Nutraceutical therapy
Phytotherapy

All branches and specialties included within the practice of veterinary medicine
Diagnose pregnancy in cattle or other livestock
A licensed chiropractor may manipulate/adjust animals under the direct supervision of a licensed Mississippi Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Accepted livestock management practices
Assistance of another licensed professional requested by veterinarian and under his/her direct or indirect supervision
Horseshoeing
Animal Owner or employee
Missouri Acupuncture
Dentistry
Animal Psychology
Animal Chiropractic
Theriogenology
Surgery (both general and cosmetic)
Any manual, mechanical, biological or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
Embryo Transfer/Transplant
Animal owner or employee
Montana Diagnosis
Surgery
Performs a manual or laboratory procedure on livestock for the diagnosis of pregnancy, sterility, or infertility for remuneration or hire
Acupuncture
Ova or Embryo Transfer
Dentistry
Pregnancy testing by animal owner/agent or performed gratuitously
Accepted livestock management practices
Castrating or dehorning of cattle, sheep, horses, and swine
Nonsurgical embryo transfers in bovines may be performed under the supervision of a veterinarian
Owner of farm animals or owner's employee
Nebraska Any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy or fertility or for correcting sterility or infertility

Veterinary Surgery
Diagnosis
Owner of livestock or a bona fide employee:

Pregnancy Testing,
Retrievable transplantation of embryos on bovine, including recovering, freezing, and transferring,
Dehorning or castrating livestock, not to include Equidae

Any person who holds a valid credential in the State of Nebraska in a health care profession or occupation regulated under the Uniform Credentialing Act from consulting with a licensed veterinarian or performing collaborative animal health care tasks on an animal under the care of such veterinarian if all such tasks are performed under the immediate supervision of such veterinarian

Any person engaging solely in equine, cat, or dog massage practice
Nevada Embryo Collection
Pregnancy Testing
Correcting sterility or infertility
Acupuncture
Dentistry
Chiropractic procedures
Surgery (including cosmetic surgery)
Using cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice, toothbrushes or similar items to clean an animal's teeth
Gratuitous castrating, dehorning or vaccinating of domesticated animals nor to the gratuitous treatment of diseased animals by friends or neighbors of the owner
Accepted livestock management practices
Animal Owner or Employee
Certified animal chiropractor
Certified animal physical therapist
New Hampshire Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
The use of any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy, or for correcting sterility, or infertility
Acupuncture
Surgical embryo transfers
Accepted livestock management practices
Animal owner or employee
Certified animal physical therapy
Equine Farrier Services
Bovine Hoof Trimming
Equine Massage
Equine filing/floating
New Jersey Diagnosis
Embryo transfer and related reproductive techniques
Surgery
Dentistry
Animal Owner
Artificial insemination
New Mexico Artificial insemination
Pregnancy Testing
Diagnosing and Treating Sterility or Infertility
Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Chiropractic
Physical therapy
Acupuncture
Acupressure
Homeopathy
Therapeutic Massage
Embryo transfer
Using cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice, toothbrushes or similar items to clean an animal's teeth
Accepted livestock management practices
Owner or employee
Chiropractic, physical therapy, acupuncture, acupressure and embryo transfer under the direct supervision of licensed veterinarian
Veterinary technicians or persons holding or training for valid permits for artificial insemination or diagnosing pregnancy
New York Veterinary Surgery
Dental conditions
Subcutaneous insertion of a microchip intended to be used to identify an animal
Floating of equine teeth
Licensed dentist under direct veterinary supervision
A physician duly licensed to practice medicine in this state, who is board certified in an area of human medicine equivalent to the required veterinary specialty in cases in which a veterinary specialist in the area of medicine required for such animal's care does not exist
North Carolina Dentistry
Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Animal Owner or Employee
Dehorn or castrate food animals
Providing for or assistance in the practice of artificial insemination
Any Farrier
A person actively engaged in shoeing hooved animals as long as his or her actions are limited to the art of shoeing hooved animals or trimming, clipping, or maintaining hooves
North Dakota Any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy, or for correcting sterility or infertility
Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
Chiropractic
Acupuncture
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Livestock owner and employees
Direct Embryo Transfers on cows
Animal owner
Ohio Surgery
Dentistry
Complementary alternative and integrative therapies
Embryo transfer (Surgical)
Accepted Livestock Management Practices including:

Acts of tagging,
Ear notching,
Hoof trimming,
Deworming,
Branding,
Artificial insemination (including semen collection, preparation and freezing)

Owner's agent may perform with the advice and consent of a licensed veterinarian who has provided training and oversight consistent with standard herd management practices:

Castration,
Tail docking,
Non-surgical dehorning,
Intravenous fluid administration,
Pregnancy detection other than by rectal technique, medication and biological administration, except for those prohibited by law,
Phlebotomy

Non-surgical embryo transfer by animal owner or owner's designee under direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian
Animal Owner
Oklahoma Surgery
Animal Chiropractic
Dentistry
Pregnancy Testing
Correcting sterility or enhancing fertility
Complementary and alternative therapies including:

Acupuncture and related acupoint therapies,
Physical therapy,
Massage therapy,
Osteopathic therapy,
Energy therapies,
Ayurveda,
Aromatherapy,
Flower remedy therapy,
Holistic medicine,
Homeopathy,
Nutritional therapy,
Phytotherapy
Complimentary and alternative medicine may be performed under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian

Licensed chiropractors certified by the Board of Chiropractic Examiners
Non-certified chiropractors may provide chiropractic treatment including vertebral subluxation complex and spinal manipulation to an animal referred by a licensed veterinarian
Acts of animal husbandry including:

Dehorning,
Branding,
Tagging or notching ears,
Teeth floating,
Farriery,
Pregnancy checking by transrectal palpation,
Collecting, preparing, or freezing semen,
Castrating,
Injecting or artificial insemination of farm animals

Animal owner or employee
Certified animal massage therapist
Non-veterinary equine dental care (if provider is certified)
The State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners can certify an individual as a non-veterinary reproductive services technician beginning November 1, 2011
Oregon Surgery
Dentistry
Embryo transfer
Pregnancy, sterility, or fertility evaluation
Animal owner or agent or employee
Dehorning and vaccinating cattle
Allied health professionals upon referral from a licensed veterinarian
Physical therapist with a referral

Preventive veterinary dental procedures including, but not limited to, the removal of calculus, soft deposits, plaque, and stains, or the smoothing, filing, or polishing of tooth surfaces shall be performed only by licensed veterinarians, certified veterinary technicians or veterinary assistants under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian
Using cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice, toothbrushes, or similar items to maintain an animal's oral hygiene
Pennsylvania Surgery, including cosmetic surgery
Dentistry
Any manual procedure upon an animal for the diagnosis or treatment of sterility or infertility of animals
Veterinary pathology
Implanting microchips
Embryo transfer
Animal owner or employee or agent
Normal husbandry practices on bovine, porcine, caprine, ovine or equine animals, or avis
Farriery
Persons actively engaged in the art or profession of horseshoeing

Chiropractic, dental, dental hygiene and physical therapy procedures performed upon animals by licensed individuals in conjunction with the practice of veterinary medicine and under the direct supervision of a veterinarian

Embryo transplantation when performed by an animal owner or his or her employee or when any person independently, with indirect veterinary supervision, implants any embryo
Rhode Island Dentistry
Surgery
Accepted Livestock Management
Animal Husbandry Practices
South Carolina Surgery, including cosmetic surgery
A manual procedure for the diagnosis or treatment for sterility or infertility of an animal
Embryo transplants
Therapeutic options or alternate therapies including:

Acupuncture
Manipulation and adjustment
Magnetic field therapy
Holistic medicine
Homeopathy
Herbology/naturopathy
Massage
Physical therapy

Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Animal owner or regular employee
Artificial insemination
Veterinarians may delegate the performance of procedures, therapeutic options and alternate therapies, under certain conditions
Floating Teeth
South Dakota Diagnosis
Surgery
Any branches of the practice of veterinary medicine
Livestock owner or employee or free service
Veterinary livestock assistants registered by the State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners who work under the supervision of a veterinarian licensed in the State of South Dakota to perform spaying of cattle and administration of biologics and pharmaceuticals under the order of their supervising veterinarians
Tennessee Surgery, including cosmetic surgery
Complementary, alternative, and integrative therapies
Any manual, mechanical, biological, or chemical procedure for the testing of pregnancy, or for the management or treatment of sterility or infertility
Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine including:

Acupuncture,
Anesthesiology,
Behavioral medicine,
Cardiology,
Chiropractic therapy,
Dermatology,
Laser therapy,
Oncology,
Ophthalmology,
Radiology,
Rehabilitative therapy,
Ultrasound
Embryo transfer from person's own food animal
Animal owner or regular employee
Castration
Dehorning of Cattle
Accepted livestock management practices

Manual procedure for testing of pregnancy in bovines by farmers not compensated and results are for owner's use only
Artificial insemination of livestock
Massage therapy
Teeth floating using non-motorized equipment by employee of veterinarian under certain conditions
Texas Dentistry
Surgery
Reproduction and obstetrics
Ophthalmology
Dermatology
Cardiology
Any other discipline or specialty of veterinary medicine
Ultrasound diagnosis and therapy
Magnetic field therapy
Holistic medicine
Chiropractic treatment
Acupuncture
Laser Therapy
Homeopathy
Embryo Transfer
Musculoskeletal manipulation and chiropractic may be practiced under the supervision of a veterinarian
Animal owner or agent
Accepted livestock management practices including:

Castrating a male animal,
Docking or Earmarking an animal,
Dehorning Cattle,
Artificially inseminating livestock,
Shoeing a Horse

Equine dentistry may be performed by a licensed equine dental provider
Teeth Cleaning
Utah Surgery
Dentistry
Implantation of any electronic device for the purpose of establishing or maintaining positive identification of animals
Animal owner or employee
Nonsurgical bovine artificial insemination
Nonsurgical bovine embryo transfer or any technician trained by or approved by an institution of higher education who performs nonsurgical bovine embryo transfer
Certified licensed chiropractor with veterinary referral
Certified licensed physical therapist with veterinary referral
Certified licensed massage therapist with veterinary referral
Certified licensed acupuncturist with veterinary referral
Certified individual who performs teeth floating
Vermont Surgery
Any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility, or infertility
Dental operations (including power-assisted filing or power-assisted floating, extraction of teeth, or other procedures that invade the soft tissue of the mouth)
Using by any person of cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice, toothbrushes, or similar items to clean an animal's teeth
Animal owner or regular employee
Accepted livestock management practices and animal husbandry practices such as:

Artificial insemination
Dehorning
Clipping and shoeing animals
Trimming feet,
Use of handheld files, rasps, or other devices to remove overgrowth from the teeth of horses (floating)
Virginia Surgery
Dentistry
Embryo transfer
Pregnancy Testing
Correcting Sterility or Infertility
Animal owner or employee
Registered equine dental technicians under regulation of the Board of Veterinary Medicine with veterinary supervision
Massage therapy or physical therapy may be delegated by a veterinarian to persons qualified by training and experience by an order from the veterinarian
Washington Surgery
Dentistry
Any manual procedure for the diagnosis of pregnancy, sterility, or infertility upon livestock
Implementation of microchip
Animal owner or employee
Castrating and dehorning of cattle
Castrating and docking of sheep
Castrating of swine
Caponizing of poultry
Artificial insemination of animals
Owner assisted in practice gratuitously
Certified animal massage therapists
West Virginia Surgery
Dentistry
Dental operations by a licensed veterinarian or veterinary assistant under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian
Accepted livestock management practices
Animal owner or employee
Wisconsin Surgery Artificial insemination
Pregnancy examinations of animals if engaged in prior to 2/11/1968
Castrating male livestock
Dehorning or branding
Wyoming Surgery, including cosmetic
Dentistry
Physiologically examine or to correct sterility or infertility
Animal owner or employee
Persons approved by the Board to perform artificial insemination, or embryo transplant or nonsurgical embryo transfer on animals, excepting dogs and cats

Source: Staff Research, AVMA Division of State Advocacy & Leadership
Contact: AVMA Division of State Ad​vocacy & Leadership