Education, training, certification and regulatory oversight: a comparison of veterinarian and non-veterinarian providers in selected areas of practice

May 2018

The charts contained in these pages were prepared to provide examples of the education, training, certification and regulatory oversight requirements of veterinarians and non-veterinarian providers in selected areas of veterinary practice. The charts are intended for informational purposes only and are not intended to be a comprehensive statement on the subject matter covered, but rather a guide that provides practical information for the reader. The charts do not represent legal advice and do not constitute a limitation or expansion of the lawful scope of practice applicable in any jurisdiction. The educational programs included in this resource are those known to AVMA and most often referenced in state regulations. This list is not exhaustive and not intended to describe every program offered in any covered category. The information was edited in May 2018 and may not necessarily reflect future changes in programs. We hope that you find this material useful. Links to other websites are provided for information and convenience only. The inclusion of such materials or links does not necessarily imply a recommendation or endorsement of those views and positions.


Equine Dentist

Embryo Transfer


Physical Therapy


Massage Therapy

Source: Staff Research, AVMA Division of State Advocacy & Leadership
Contact: AVMA Division of Sta​te Advocacy & Leadership