October 15, 2015

 

 1925 - 1935

Posted Sept. 30, 2015

During this decade, reports on food animals predominated in JAVMA. Especially prevalent were reports on diseases affecting cattle. Tuberculosis in cattle and related developments, including the Calmette-Guerin method for vaccination of animals against TB, received attention. Bovine infectious abortion became more appropriately referred to as Bang’s disease because “swine are not bovines and bulls do not abort,” according to a January 1926 JAVMA paper. The first use of the Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine and first vaccination of calves were reported.

Bovine infectious abortion became more appropriately referred to as Bang’s disease because 'swine are not bovines and bulls do not abort.'”

“Bovine abortion—prevention and control—further remarks” in the January 1926 issue

Numerous reports focused on fertility and infertility in cows and bulls. These included information on physiologic function of the corpus luteum of cattle, breeding and inherited diseases, and retained fetal membranes. This period also saw the first reports of trichomoniasis in U.S. cattle. Foot-and-mouth disease and vesicular stomatitis were of concern, as was paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease). Laboratories were overwhelmed, however, with the need to produce tuberculin for testing, so production of johnin for use in testing programs was relegated to a minor role. Initial reports on milk fever indicated it to be a problem of hypoglycemia in cattle, but subsequent studies identified the role of calcium in the condition. A vaccine against rinderpest was developed, and there were massive efforts for tick eradication, especially in Texas, to prevent losses caused by cattle fever (babesiosis).

During the 1928 AVMA Annual Meeting, six sections featuring live demonstrations were held at University Farm at the University
of Minnesota. The sections covered horses, cattle, small animals, sheep, swine, and poultry. “Leaders in these different fields of practice ... were on hand to give demonstrations, perform operations and explain the latest methods of diagnosis and treatment,” according to a September 1928 article.

Information on diseases of birds, primarily chickens, was common. Extensive information was published on Salmonella pullorum (bacillary white diarrhea) in chickens as well as fowl pox, fowl plague, and laryngotracheitis.

Swine also had a prominent place in JAVMA. In 1933, veterinarians commemorated the 100th anniversary of their battle against hog cholera. The 1930s also saw an increase in the incidence of erysipelas in U.S. swine. Several reports provided information on anemia of swine, especially baby pigs, and hematologic indexes of swine. In the April 1928 issue, JAVMA published its first color images in an article on infectious enteritis in swine.

In the April 1928 issue, JAVMA published its first color images with an article on infectious enteritis in swine.

Information on horses was also plentiful. Reports often featured normal physiology (cardiac physiology and blood pressure) and anatomy. Equine encephalomyelitis was a major problem. Mosquitoes were identified as vectors for equine encephalomyelitis, and it was reported that administration of a formol-killed vaccine would protect horses against experimental infection. This decade also saw the first identification of Corynebacterium equi pneumonia in foals.

There was a heavy emphasis on nutrition (especially use of vitamins and minerals) and sanitation, which were primary weapons for veterinarians in those years. Numerous reports on plant toxicoses, especially in sheep, were published. Pregnancy toxemia and infestation with Oestrus ovis were other conditions affecting sheep. In 1934, it was reported that sore mouth in lambs (orf) was caused by a virus and was transmissible to humans.

Parasites were a problem in all species. It was hoped, however, that a new anthelmintic, tetrachlorethylene, would prove safe and efficacious.

For dogs, distemper and rabies were topics of concern. Several articles were published on salmon disease in dogs of the Pacific Northwest. Radiography as a diagnostic tool was in its infancy. Surgery and postoperative care of small animals were addressed in several articles, which included a description of lumbar anesthesia and the use of chloroform and ether for inhalation anesthesia of dogs.

Information was published on conditions and diseases affecting foxes and other fur-bearing animals. Information about diseases in rabbits also was common.

Public health efforts were reflected in food hygiene focused on meat and milk inspection and the prevention of tuberculosis and undulant fever (brucellosis) in humans. Sanitation was stressed for preventing disease and maintaining animal health.

Articles were published on veterinary education and training, veterinary practice, and career management. Some articles provided building designs for animal hospitals that included accommodations for small animals.