The AVMA has posted online answers to frequently asked questions about two emerging viruses—canine respiratory coronavirus and canine parvovirus type 2c.
The respiratory coronavirus was recently identified as causing disease outbreaks in dogs in Florida shelters. The parvovirus type 2c was first identified in the United States as the cause of parvoviral enteritis outbreaks in 2006 and 2007 in Arizona, California, Georgia, Oklahoma, and Texas.
The canine respiratory coronavirus is genetically related to the bovine coronavirus, which can cause respiratory tract infections in cattle, and to the human coronavirus that causes the common cold in people. It was initially identified in dogs with acute respiratory tract infection in England in 2003.
The virus commonly infects dogs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Greece, Italy, and Japan. Recent studies have shown the virus to be present in the United States and Canada.
The respiratory coronavirus is highly contagious and spreads by dog-to-dog contact, aerosols of respiratory secretions, and contact with contaminated environments or people. At this time, there is no vaccine to prevent infection or reduce the clinical disease.
Canine parvovirus type 2c was first detected in Italy in 2000 and has been reported in Western Europe, Asia, and South America.
The parvovirus is highly contagious and is spread dog to dog and by contact with contaminated feces, surfaces, environments, or people.
Currently, there is no vaccine to specifically prevent CPV-2c infection. According to recent studies, there is evidence that the commercially available parvovirus vaccines may provide some protection, and they are still strongly recommended for the prevention of canine parvovirus infection.