One Health--Discussion and Summary of Comments

One Health — a New Professional Imperative
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Appendix D
"Wise-Person" Discussion and Summary of Comments

The following individuals were contacted by the One Health Initiative Task Force Wise-Person Working Group. The charge of the Working Group was to contact stakeholder groups and individuals who are interested in the One Health Initiative, and to obtain their ideas on key areas and concepts that the Task Force could consider in preparing its report. This included individuals nominated for the Task Force, and individuals and organizations who previously provided written materials for the Task Force to consider.

  • L. Garry Adams; DVM, PhD, DACVP; Member, AVMA Council on Research; Associate Dean for Research, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University
  • Marianne Ash; DVM; Member, AVMA Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine; Director, Biosecurity and Preparedness Planning, Indiana State Board of Animal Health
  • Mike Auslander; DVM, MSPH; State Public Health Veterinarian, Kentucky Department of Public Health
  • John C. Baker; DVM, PhD, DACVIM; Vice-Chair, AVMA Council on Research; Associate Director, Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, Michigan State University,
  • Val Beasley; DVM, PhD, DACVT; Professor, Veterinary Biosciences and Assistant Department Head, Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois; Executive Director, Envirovet Summer Institute
  • Edward Belongia; MD; Member, National and Global Public Health Committee, Infectious Diseases Society of America; Senior Epidemiologist/Director, Epidemiology Research Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation
  • Philip Bergman; DVM, MS, PhD, DACVIM; President of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) Board of Regents, Board Member of the ACVIM Foundation; Chief Medical Officer, BrightHeart Veterinary Centers
  • Mike Bolton; DVM; President, American Association of Bovine Practitioners
  • Steven C. Budsberg; DVM, MS, DACVS; Member, AVMA Council on Research; Professor, Department of Small Animal Medicine & Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia
  • Tom Burkgren; DVM, MBA; Executive Director, American Association of Swine Veterinarians
  • Bonnie Buntain; MS, DVM, DABVP, DACVPM; Professor, Public Health; Assistant Dean, Government & International Relations; Interim Department Head, Ecosystem & Public Health; University of Calgary Veterinary Medicine
  • Jules Cass; DVM, MS, DACLAM, DABVT; Retired
  • Billy Clay; DVM, MS, DABVT; Member, AVMA Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine; Owner, Vetta Consulting LLC
  • Leslie Dierauf; VMD; Director, National Wildlife Health Center, United States Geological Survey
  • Tracy DuVernoy; DVM, MPH, DACVPM; Member, AVMA Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine; Team Leader, AI/PI Communications Center, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System, Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Defense
  • Keith Friendshuh; DVM, BvSC; Member, AVMA Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine; State District Veterinarian – Stillwater, Board of Animal Health, State of Minnesota
  • Paul Garbe; DVM, MPH, DACVPM; Member, AVMA Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine; Associate Director for Science, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Kirsten Gilardi; DVM, DACZM; Senior Wildlife Veterinarian; University of California-Davis Wildlife Health Center; Director, Envirovet Summer Institute
  • W. David Goolsby; DVM, MPH, MS; Health Director, Department of Health and Environmental Control, State of South Carolina
  • Julie Hantman; MPH; Senior Program Officer for Public Health, Public Policy & Government Relations, Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • John Herrmann; DVM, MPH; Director, DVM/MPH Dual Degree Program; Assistant Clinical Professor, Veterinary Clinical Medicine Section Head, Community Health and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois
  • Donald Hoenig; VMD; Member, AVMA Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine; State Veterinarian and Director, Department of Agriculture, Division of Animal Health & Industry, State of Maine
  • Ann Hohenhaus; DVM, DACVIM; Member, AVMA Council on Research; Chairman, Department of Medicine, The Animal Medical Center
  • David M. Hood; DVM, PhD; Chair, AVMA Council on Research; Associate Professor, Texas A&M University, Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology
  • James Hughes; MD; Professor of Medicine and Public Health; School of Medicine and Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University
  • John Huntley; DVM, MPH; Chair, AVMA Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine; Director, Division of Animal Industry, and Chief Veterinarian, New York State
  • Bhushan Jayarao; BVSc, PhD, MPH; Member, AVMA Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine; Professor / Extension Veterinarian, Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Penn State University
  • Samuel Jones; DVM, PhD, DACVIM; Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University
  • Laura Kahn; MD, MPH, MPP; Research Staff, Program on Science and Global Security Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University
  • Bruce Kaplan; DVM, DAVES (Hon); Retired
  • Chand Khanna; DVM, PhD; Head, Tumor and Metastasis Biology Section, Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Institutes of Health Center for Cancer Research
  • Jeffrey S. Klausner; DVM, MS, DACVIM; Member, AVMA Council on Research; President & CEO, The Animal Medical Center
  • Steven Leary; DVM; President-Elect, American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine; Assistant Vice Chancellor for Veterinary Affairs, Division of Comparative Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine
  • K.C. Kent Lloyd; DVM, PhD; Member, AVMA Council on Research; Associate Dean for Research & Graduate Education Programs, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California
  • Nina Marano; DVM, MA, MPH, DACVPM; Associate Director, Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Hugh Mainzer; MSPH, DVM; DACVPM; Chief Veterinary Officer; Captain, U.S. Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, Department of Health and Human Services
  • G. David McCarroll; DVM, DACVIM; Member, AVMA Council on Research; Veterinarian, Interstate Equine Services
  • William McCulloch; DVM, MPH, Co-founder, Delta Society
  • Tracey McNamara; DVM, DACVP; Professor, Pathology, Western University of Health Sciences
  • Michael E. Newman; DVM, MS; Member, AVMA Council on Research; Owner, Veterinary Regional Referral Hospital, Alabama
  • Kenneth Nusbaum; DVM, PhD, DACVM; Associate Professor, Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University
  • Larry Norvell; CEO, Delta Society
  • Steve Osofsky; DVM; Senior Policy Advisor, Wildlife Health, Wildlife Conservation Society – Field Veterinary Program
  • Lanny Pace; DVM, PhD, DACVP; Member, AVMA Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine; Professor, Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine; Executive Director, Mississippi Veterinary Research & Diagnostic Laboratory System, Mississippi State University
  • Charlie Powell; Spokesperson, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University
  • Don Reynolds; DVM, PhD, DACVM; Member, Council on Research; Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University
  • Byron Rippke; DVM; Director of Policy, Evaluation and Licensing Center, Veterinary Services, United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
  • Thomas Rosol; DVM, PhD, DACVP; Dean, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University
  • Matthias Schnell; PhD; Member, Research Committee, Infectious Diseases Society of America; Professor, Thomas Jefferson University College of Medicine
  • Harry Snelson; DVM; Director of Communications, American Association of Swine Veterinarians
  • Mark Starr; DVM, MPVM, DACVPM; Vice-Chair, AVMA Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine; Director, Community Health and Clinics, Placer County Health and Human Services Department, California
  • Kate Sulzner; DVM; Founder, Ecovet International
  • Jeff Toll; VMD, DACVIM; Chair, ACVIM Education and Research Committee; Board Member, ACVIM Foundation

The following selected comments are provided to give insight into the breadth and depth of the perspectives of those individuals contacted in the Wise-Person calls.

Veterinarians in wildlife health, public health, human medicine, the human-animal bond, clinical practice, academia, research, agriculture, and the AVMA's Council on Research and Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine:

  • There is a large impact of human health benefits from animal therapy visits around the country, reaching out to at least 1 million people per year and promoting the human-animal bond. This role of animals in contributing to human well-being and health needs to be emphasized in the Federal Healthy People 2020 document.
  • There are examples of good collaboration between some research training programs between veterinary and medical schools, which benefits the students, the faculty overseeing the labs, and funding for the training from federal agencies.
  • Many new findings in one medical field (human or veterinary) can be translated into use for the other medical field, and these include orthopedic tools and biologic agents (vaccines and other prevention and treatment strategies).
  • The value of One Health collaboration between agriculture and public health is exemplified by programs such as the tuberculosis and brucellosis eradication programs.
  • Veterinarians have, can, and should take part in emergency response organizations that target both human and veterinary medicine needs.
  • Current surveillance programs with strategic partnerships include ArboNet, the Global Avian Influenza Network for Surveillance, and the National Biosurveillance Integration System.
  • Field training programs such as Envirovet provide an opportunity for veterinary students and veterinarians to learn how to apply the One Health concept to sustaining healthy wildlife, people, and ecosystems. Such programs should be strengthened and supported to provide veterinary and other professionals with the skills to implement effective programs around the world.
  • Continued animal use in research is a major concern for ensuring development of future technologies for use in both human and veterinary medicine.
  • Every effort should be made to ensure that human health, animal health, and health of the environment are given equal consideration under "One Health."
  • Illustrating the small business benefits of One Health to practitioners at the local level is key.
  • Workforce expansion and pay equity among health professions are pertinent, not only in the public sector but also in private enterprise and in academia.
  • There is a need for a comprehensive integrated surveillance system with adequate information sharing, including incorporation of members of the general public for unusual animal and human health findings.
  • Multiagency coordination with local jurisdictions has worked effectively and should be further encouraged, an example being the abatement of plague spread from prairie dog towns into the endangered and federally funded black-footed ferret communities.
  • Antimicrobial resistance, climate variability, wildlife preservation, and food safety are all major issues of significance to One Health.
  • Congressional interests in issues wax and wane based upon perceived threats, so funding for diseases that are currently under control due to targeted public health activities might (paradoxically) be in danger of losing Congressional funding.
  • Federal funding for interdisciplinary research is not always available due to set charges of various federal agencies. Cross-agency coordination and cooperation should be further encouraged and supported to foster One-Health multi-disciplinary research.
  • A "cookbook" type document should be available for practitioners to transition more easily from practice to public health careers.
  • Development of a web-based clearinghouse of One Health information, including distance learning, could be pursued.
  • At the local level, practitioners could seek positions on local boards of health, provide One Health-based brochures to clients, and/or consider volunteering for state or county emergency response teams.
  • A One Health-based journal could be developed.
  • Multidisciplinary activities with professions such as social sciences and economics should be pursued, for a more holistic approach to target biodiversity loss and conservation.
  • There are significant cost savings when ecosystem health is preserved proactively in contrast to reacting to negative changes resulting in and from the ecosystem.
  • Consideration should be given to the concept that plant diseases do not directly affect animals, but economic impacts of such disease would have impacts on animal production.
  • Research what One Health budget currently exists in the federal government as a baseline, in order to determine what funding is still needed.
  • Human drug development and safety evaluations have a need for veterinary expertise, examples being that veterinarians are needed to conduct and interpret special studies in animal models, welfare assurance, Good Laboratory Practice standards, and good manufacturing processes.
  • Certain topics should be pursued to exemplify One Health as a collaborative effort, including dietary recommendations on animal-based foods for children and antimicrobial resistance.

American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine Diplomates:

  • There have been examples of One Health courses taught to professional students from varied professions, including medical anthropology and social sciences.
  • Funding at the interface of people, animals, and the environment, including at the community level, might be difficult to obtain.
  • One Health includes syndemics and economy epidemics, so to solve challenges there needs to be not only the health professions but also the social scientists involved.
  • The perception of veterinarians should be transformed so that they are seen as being health care providers to solve public health shortage. Implementing higher loan repayments, promoting public service, and facilitating paths from practice to public health are means to transform that image.
  • Leadership skills should be more highly regarded than credentials for One Health promotion.
  • Biodiversity loss has been associated with food crises and poverty as resources are lost, and international research is identifying integrated approaches to solving these challenges.

American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine

  • There are examples of effective collaboration between ACVIM Diplomates and physicians in research on chronic disease, infectious disease, and oncology.
  • Unity among the veterinary profession is key; this includes ensuring that veterinarians understand how the profession fits into a wider group of health professions, and that workforce expansion cuts across the entire veterinary profession.
  • Other means to promote One Health include promoting dual appointments for academicians, encouraging co-sponsored (veterinary and human medical) presentations at specialty conferences, providing technical support to policymakers, and sponsoring research programs for veterinary students.
  • A comprehensive national strategy should include identifying veterinarians as clinical scientists along with other health professionals.

Select examples to communicate One Health concepts to the public

  • Explanations of the role of various professions in helping to quickly detect and control zoonotic and Emerging diseases, such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Lyme Disease, West Nile Virus, Ebola, Monkeypox, and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.
  • Health professions are more similar than they are different.
  • Cancer is cancer, whether in people or animals. All substances known to cause cancer in people also cause cancer in animals.
  • One Health is the concept that spans disciplines. Many diseases affect different species so there should be a broad species perspective to meet today's challenges. The diseases emerging are zoonotic, so they cannot be tackled by veterinary or human medical perspectives alone.
  • Because of the freedom to go anywhere in the world so quickly, coupled with the majority of emerging diseases being zoonotic, we need to have new approaches to new and old pathogens.
  • We need to understand the interrelatedness of human, animal, and environmental health, including the veterinarian's special perspective of understanding agricultural production systems, which is important as the demand for animal protein grows and as people encroach on rural areas.
  • Damage to the environment, including climate change, is modifying disease vectors.
  • The message should exemplify a proactive, not a reactive, approach, and should be a part of a communications strategy.

One Health Initiative Support from the American Society for Microbiology:
Microbiologists also embrace the interrelatedness of human, animal, and environment health. Specifically, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has endorsed the One Health Initiative. Microbiology is seen as a major interface among the disciplines of human, animal, and environmental health, and microbiology research also furthers goals of the Initiative through collaboration with both veterinary and human medical fields. One Health issues that are relevant to the ASM include areas such as emerging infectious diseases and climate change.