References: Policy on Raw or Undercooked Animal-Source Protein in Cat and Dog Diets

Resources used to develop the AVMA policy “Raw or Undercooked Animal-Source Protein in Cat and Dog Diets”

American Pet Product Association. 2003–2004 APPA National Pet Owners Survey. Greenwich, CT: APPA; 2004.
American Pet Product Association. Guidelines for the Manufacturing of Natural Part Treats for Pets. Available at:
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Clark C, Cunningham J, Ahmed R, et al. Characterization of Salmonella associated with pig ear dog treats in Canada. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3962–3968.
Dillitzer N, Becker N, Kienzle E. Intake of minerals, trace elements, and vitamins in bone and raw food rations fed in adult dogs. Brit J of Nut 2011;106:S53-S56. 
Finley RL. Salmonella in Commercially Available Pig Ear Treats and Raw Food Diets: Prevalence Survey and Canine Feeding Trial [MSc. thesis]. Guelph, Ontario, Canada: University of Guelph; 2004.
Finley R, Reid-Smith R, Ribble C. The occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonellae isolated from commercially available canine raw food diets in three Canadian cities. Zoonoses Public Health. 2008;55(8–10):462-469.
Finley R, Reid-Smith R, Weese JS. Human health implications of Salmonella-contaminated natural pet treats and raw pet food. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:686–691.
Finley R, Ribble C, Aramini J, et al. The risk of Salmonellae shedding by dogs fed salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets. Can Vet J. 2007;48:69–75.
Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: Manufacture and Labeling of Raw Meat Foods for Companion and Captive Noncompanion Carnivores and Omnivores. Available at: Revised November 9, 2004.
Freeman LM, Michel KE. Evaluation of raw food diets for dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;218:705–709.
Galton MM. Humans and pets as sources of salmonellosis. J Am Chem Soc. 1969;46:230–232.
Galton MM, Harless M, Hardy AV. Salmonella isolation from dehydrated dog meats. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1955;127:57–58.
Greene CE. Enteric bacterial infections—salmonellosis. In: Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 2nd ed. CE Greene, ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1998:235–240.
Joffe DJ, Schlesinger DP. Preliminary assessment of the risk of Salmonella infection in dogs fed raw chicken diets. Can Vet J. 2002;43:441–442.
Kahrs RF, Holmes DN, Poppensiek GD. Diseases transmitted from pets to man: an evolving concern for veterinarians. Cornell Vet. 1978;68:442–459.
Kozak M, Horosova K, Lasanda V, et al. Do dogs and cats present a risk of transmission of salmonellosis to humans? Bratise Lek Listy. 2003;104:323–328.
Laarman J, Tadros W. Coccidiosis of man, dog and cat resulting from the ingestion of Sarcocystis in insufficiently cooked beef, pork or mutton—a brief review. Trop Geograph Med 1975;27:226.
Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. Human health risk from exposure to natural dog treats—preliminary report. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2000;26:41–42.
Lefebvre SL, Reid-Smith R, Boerlin P, et al. Evaluation of the risks of shedding Salmonellae and other potential pathogens by therapy dogs fed raw diets in Ontario and Alberta. Zoonoses Public Health. 2008;55:470–480.
LeJeune JT, Hancock, D.D. Public health concerns associated with feeding raw meats diets to dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2001;219:1222–1225.
Lenz J, Joffe D, Kauffman M, et al. Perceptions, practices, and consequences associated with foodborne pathogens and the feeding of raw meat to dogs. Can Vet J. 2009;50:637–643.
Leonard EK, Pearl DL, Finley RL, et al. Evaluation of pet-related management factors and the risk of Salmonella spp. carriage in pet dogs from volunteer households in Ontario (2005–2006). Zoonoses Public Health. 2011 Mar;58(2):140-149.
Li X, Bethune LA, Jia Y et al. Surveillance of Salmonella Prevalence in Animal Feeds and Characterization of the Salmonella Isolates by Serotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2012l 9:692-8.
Lopes AP, Cardoso L, Rodrigues M. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats from northeastern Portugal. Vet Parasit 2008; 155: 184-9.
Lucas SRR, Hagiwara MK, Loureiro VS et al. Toxoplasma gondii in Brazilian domestic outpatient cats. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo 1999; Available at
Marks SL, Kather EJ. Bacterial-associated diarrhea in the dog: a critical appraisal. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2003;33:1029–1060.
Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, et al. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:607–625.
Morley PS, Strohmeyer RA; Tankson JD et al. Evaluation of the association between feeding raw meat and Salmonella enteritica infections at a Greyhound breeding facility. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 2006; 228: 1524-1532.
Morse EV, Duncan MA. Canine salmonellosis: prevalence, epizootiology, signs, and public health significance. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1975;167:817–820.
Morse EV, Duncan MA, Estep DA, et al. Canine salmonellosis: a review and report of dog to child transmission of Salmonella enteritidis. Am J Public Health. 1976;66:82–84.
Murphy CP. Occurrence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Selected Bacteria in Healthy Dogs and Cats Presented to Private Veterinary Clinics in Southern Ontario [MSc. thesis]. Guelph, Ontario, Canada: University of Guelph; 2004.
Pitout JDD, Reisbig MD, Mulvey M, et al. Association between handling of pet treats and infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Newport expressing the AmpC b-lactamase, CMY-2. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:4578–4582.
Public Health Agency of Canada. Advisory: Salmonella infection in humans linked to natural pet treats, raw food diets for pets. July 2005. Available at:
Sanchez S, Hofacre CL, Lee MD, et al. Animal sources of salmonellosis in humans. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;221:492–497.
Sato Y, Mori T, Koyama T, et al. Salmonella Virchow infection in an infant transmitted by household dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 2000;62:767–769.
Savani G, Dunsmore J, Robertson I. A survey of Western Australian dogs for Sarcocystis spp and other intestinal parasites. Aust Vet J 1993;70:275–276. 46.
Schlesinger DP, Joffe DJ. Raw food diets in companion animals: A critical review. Can Vet J. 2011;52:50–54. 
Stehr-Green JK, Schantz PM. The impact of zoonotic diseases transmitted by pets on human health and the economy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1987;17:1–15.
Sokolow SH, Rand C, Marks SL, et al. Epidemiologic evaluation of diarrhea in dogs in an animal shelter. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:1018–1024.
Stiver SL, Frazier KS, Mauel MJ, et al. Septicemic salmonellosis in two cats fed a raw-meat diet. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2003;39:538–542.
Stone GG, Chengappa MM, Oberst RD, et al. Application of polymerase chain reaction for the correlation of Salmonella serovars recovered from greyhound feces with their diet. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1993;5:378–385.
Strohmeyer RA, Hyatt DR, Morley PS, et al. Microbiological risk of feeding raw meat diets to canines [abstract 75]. In: Program and Abstracts of the 2004 Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (Chicago). Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing; 2004.
Taylor MB, Geiger DA, Saker KE, et al. Diffuse osteopenia and myelopathy in a puppy fed a diet composed of an organic premix and raw ground beef. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009;234(8)1041–1049.
Voetsch AC, Van Gilder TJ, Angulo FJ, et al. FoodNet estimate of the burden of illness caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(suppl 3):S127–S134.
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Weese JS, Rousseau J. Survival of Salmonella Copenhagen in Food Bowels Following Contamination with Experimentally Inoculated Raw Meat: Effects of Time, Cleaning, and Disinfection. Can Vet J. 2006 Sep; 47(9):887-9
Weese SJ, Rousseau J, Arroyo L. Bacteriological evaluation of commercial canine and feline raw diets. Can Vet J. 2005;46:513–516.
White DG, Datta A, McDermott P, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relatedness of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal-derived dog treats in the USA. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52:860–863.
Wright JG, Tengelsen LA, Smith KE, et al. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium in four animal facilities. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1235–1241.
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