State Summary Report

 Scope of Practice: Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) and other practice act exemptions

Last updated November 2017

The following chart summarizes key provisions of state veterinary practice acts and accompanying regulations relating to common CAVM treatments such as chiropractic, acupuncture and physical therapy. The chart also lists other exemptions from the definition of veterinary medicine, such as those for animal owners, farming/livestock practices, artificial insemination, equine teeth floating/cleaning, and embryo removal or transfer.

A handful of states do not have provisions specifically addressing CAVM. In these states, be sure to read carefully the state’s general definition of veterinary medicine, as well as the definition of scope of practice of other licensed professions such as chiropractic and physical therapy.

About 20 states follow the AVMA Model Veterinary Practice Act by including CAVM in the definition of veterinary medicine, while another 20 states or so have enacted specific or general exemptions for regulated therapies, generally requiring some type of veterinary input such as supervision or referral.

Please keep in mind that these are general summaries only, and for a comprehensive analysis of practice act scope and exemptions in a particular state, you are strongly advised to review the full text of the statute and regulations, and/or consult a local attorney knowledgeable in this field. The current laws and regulations can be found on most state legislative web sites.

State veterinary medical associations are also excellent sources of information about their state’s practice act.

Also note that laws and regulations are amended occasionally, so be sure to be working with the current version.

STATE INCLUDED IN THE PRACTICE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE EXEMPTIONS
Alabama Acupuncture
Dentistry
Animal psychology
Animal chiropractic
Theriogenology
Surgery (including cosmetic)
Any manual, mechanical, biological, or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
Removing embryo to cryopreserve, transplant or implant
Animal massage by a massage therapist under the direction of a licensed veterinarian
Removing embryo to cryopreserve, transplant or implant (Animal owner or his regular employee)
Alaska Dentistry
Any manual, mechanical, biological, or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
Artificial insemination
Farrier
Routine Farming or Animal Husbandry (Performed by Animal owner or employee
Arizona Veterinary surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
Acupuncture
Manipulation
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Treating an animal with no compensation (Animal owner or employee)
Certified equine dental practitioners under the general supervision of a licensed veterinarian
Arkansas Acupuncture
Dentistry
Animal psychology
Animal Chiropractic
Theriogenology
Veterinary surgery (including cosmetic)
Any manual, mechanical, biological, or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Routine accepted livestock management practices without compensation
Livestock embryo transfer or transplant
Livestock pregnancy determination
Animal owner or employee
Horseshoeing
Training
Selling medicines for the treatment of animal diseases
Collecting, preparing or freezing semen
Nonsurgical artificial insemination
Animal chiropractic under the immediate supervision of an Arkansas licensed veterinarian
California Surgical or dental operations
Performs any manual procedure for the diagnosis of pregnancy, sterility, or infertility upon livestock or Equidae
Any person may utilize cotton swabs, gauze, dental floss, dentifrice, or toothbrushes on an animal's teeth
Animal Chiropractic by a licensed chiropractor under the direct supervision of a veterinarian
Gratuitous assistance to owner
Animal owner or employee
Determination as to status of pregnancy, sterility, infertility of livestock, equine, food animals at time of insemination, if free of charge
Colorado Artificial insemination
Ova transplantation
Pregnancy Testing
Correcting sterility or infertility
Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry (does not include certain teeth cleaning or preventative dental procedures)
Transrectal procedures, embryo transfer, uterine lavages, and reproductive procedures
Accepted livestock management practices
Animal owner or employee
Animal massage – any person may perform massage on an animal if the person does not prescribe drugs, perform surgery, or diagnose medical conditions and has earned a degree or certificate in animal massage from an approved school
Animal Chiropractic- a licensed chiropractor may perform animal chiropractic when such chiropractic diagnosis and treatment is consistent with the scope of practice for chiropractors and the animal has been provided a veterinary medical clearance by a licensed veterinarian
Physical therapy – a licensed physical therapist may perform physical therapy on an animal with proper training and with veterinary medical clearance
Any person may assist in a surgical procedure under the immediate supervision of a licensed veterinarian, who is responsible for the person's performance
The practice of dentistry may be delegated to veterinary personnel under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian
Connecticut Surgery
Animal dentistry.
Euthanizing of animals in accordance with applicable state and federal drug laws by the Connecticut Humane Society
Teeth floating
Delaware For testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Accepted livestock management practices
Animal owner or employee
Support activities under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian
District of Columbia Surgery
Dentistry
An employee or agent of the federal or District government while performing his or her official duties provided, that a person exempt under this paragraph shall not perform surgical operations
Florida Performing any manual procedure for the diagnosis of or treatment for pregnancy or fertility or infertility of animals
Surgery
Acupuncture
Obstetrics
Dentistry
Physical therapy
Radiology
Theriogenology
Other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Animal owner or employee
Part-time or temporary basis hires, or independent contractors hired by an owner to assist with herd management and animal husbandry tasks for herd and flock animals, including castration, dehorning, parasite control, and debeaking, or a person hired on a part-time or temporary basis, or as an independent contractor, by an owner to provide farriery and manual hand floating of teeth on equines
Out-of-state veterinarians practicing temporarily in the state
Georgia Acupuncture
Dentistry
Manual or mechanical adjustment procedures
Physical therapy
Veterinary Surgery
Diagnostic veterinary pathology
Any manual, mechanical, biological, or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
Obstetrics
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Teeth cleaning
Acceptable livestock management practices
Pregnancy Testing
Implanting electronic identification devices in small companion animals
Artificial insemination
Animal owner or employee
Non-surgical embryo removal
Testing and evaluation of semen
Soft tissue animal massage or other forms of soft tissue animal manipulation
Any other licensed or registered health care provider utilizing his or her special skills so long as the treatment of the animal is under the direction of a licensed veterinarian with a valid veterinary-client-patient relationship
Aquaculture or raniculture management practices
Farriery
Hawaii Surgery
Dentistry
Animal owner or employee
Farmers assisting each other with husbandry practices
Idaho Surgery
Dentistry
Obstetrics
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Artificial insemination
Pregnancy Testing
Fertility Evaluation
Embryo Transplant
Fresh Semen Grading
Farmer, rancher, or feedlot operator and employees
Animal owner or employee
Artificial insemination of domestic animals
Horseshoeing or hoof trimming
Teeth cleaning
Allied health professional participating in procedure within his/her scope of practice and under direct supervision of actively licensed veterinarian
Illinois Complementary, alternative, or integrative veterinary medical procedures including:
Chiropractic
Physical therapy
Animal acupuncture
Animal acutherapy
Animal acupressure
Veterinary homeopathy
Veterinary nutraceutical therapy
Veterinary phytotherapy
Dentistry
Any manual or mechanical procedure for reproductive management, including the diagnosis or treatment of pregnancy, sterility, or infertility
Animal owner or employee
Livestock Management Practices
Member in good standing of another licensed or regulated profession acting with informed consent from the client and under direct or indirect supervision and control of a veterinarian
An individual providing equine dentistry services requested by a veterinarian, an owner or an owner's agent
Indiana Surgical or dental operation
Complimentary or alternative therapy
Pregnancy, Sterility, or Infertility Diagnosis
Chiropractic
Acupuncture
Equine massage therapy
Animal owner or regular employee
Non-veterinarian licensed professionals can practice on animals when asked by a veterinarian and within a valid VCPR, with direct or indirect contact with veterinarian
Iowa Veterinary surgery
Veterinary obstetrics
Veterinary dentistry,
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Evaluate or correct sterility or infertility
Accepted livestock practices
Artificial insemination
Horseshoeing and trimming feet
Animal owner or employee
Kansas Acupuncture
Surgical or dental operations
Cosmetic Surgery
Animal psychology
Animal chiropractic
Theriogenology
Any manual, mechanical, biological or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
All other branches of veterinary medicine
Animal owner or regular employee
Independent contractor under direct or indirect supervision of veterinarian as specified by regulation
Kentucky Any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy, or for correcting sterility or infertility
Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Embryo Transfer
Dentistry
Acupuncture
Laser therapy
Manipulation
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Animal owner or regular employee
Castration and dehorning of farm animals
Trainer, agent or herdsman in context of veterinary-patient relationship
Embryo transfers from any person who holds a postgraduate degree in reproductive physiology or a related field, and who has performed embryo transfers in Kentucky during the five (5) years immediately preceding July 14, 1992
Louisiana Veterinary surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches of veterinary medicine
The use of any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy, or for correcting sterility, or infertility
Accepted livestock management practices
Artificial insemination
Nonsurgical impregnation of farm animals with frozen embryos
Animal owner or regular employee
Equine dentistry
Alternative and collaborative therapy with veterinary supervision. Alternative and collaborative therapy includes: ultrasonography, magnetic field therapy, holistic medicine, homeopathy, animal chiropractic treatment, animal acupuncture, animal physical therapy, animal massage therapy, laser therapy, ophthalmology, cardiology, neurology, radiology, and oncology
Maine Acupuncture
Dentistry
Homeopathic procedures
Chiropractic procedures
Physical or massage therapy
Surgery including elective surgery
Any manual, mechanical, biological or chemical procedure used for pregnancy testing or correcting sterility or infertility
Obstetrics
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Accepted livestock practices
Owner or animal caretaker
Commercially performed artificial insemination
Horseshoeing and trimming feet
Maryland Surgery, including cosmetic surgery
Dentistry
Any manual procedure upon an animal for the diagnosis or treatment of sterility or infertility of the animal
Accepted livestock management practices
A farrier or a person actively engaged in the art or profession of horseshoeing as long as his actions are limited to the art of horseshoeing or trimming and maintaining horse hooves;
Teeth floating/cleaning
Acupuncture under the supervision of a veterinarian
Animal owner
Massachusetts Surgery
Diagnosis
Animal Owner or employee
Accepted livestock management practices
Veterinary or surgical works
The giving of advice to a neighbor by a person who does not hold himself out as a veterinarian or receive compensation
Michigan Surgery
Diagnosis
Animal owner
Licensed chiropractor with veterinary supervision
Minnesota Surgery
Obstetrics
Pathology
Radiology
Dentistry
Ophthalmology
Cardiology
Dermatology
Laboratory animal medicine,
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Determination of pregnancy and correction of sterility or infertility
Dehorning cattle and goats
Castration of cattle, swine, goats and sheep
Docking sheep
Animal owner or regular employee
Chiropractic care by registered chiropractors when referred by a veterinarian and using a separate space to treat animals
Equine teeth floating
Farriery- Licenses for are issued by the racing authority pursuant to rule – not mentioned outside of racing
Mississippi Complementary, alternative and integrative therapies including:
Acupuncture
Acutherapy
Acupressure
Homeopathy
Osteopathy
Chiropractic
Physical therapy
Nutraceutical therapy
Phytotherapy
All branches and specialties included within the practice of veterinary medicine
Diagnose pregnancy in cattle or other livestock
A licensed chiropractor may manipulate/adjust animals under the direct supervision of a licensed Mississippi doctor of veterinary medicine
Accepted livestock management practices approved by the Board
Assistance of another licensed professional requested by veterinarian and under his/her direct or indirect supervision
Horseshoeing
Animal Owner or employee
Missouri Acupuncture
Dentistry
Animal Psychology
Animal Chiropractic
Theriogenology
Surgery, General and Cosmetic
Any manual, mechanical, biological or chemical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
Embryo Transfer/Transplant
Animal owner or employee
Montana Performs a manual or laboratory procedure on livestock for the diagnosis of pregnancy, sterility, or infertility for remuneration or hire
Acupuncture
Ova or Embryo Transfer
Dentistry
Pregnancy testing by animal owner/agent or performed gratuitously
Accepted livestock management practices
Castrating or dehorning of cattle, sheep, horses, and swine
Nonsurgical embryo transfers in bovines may be performed under the supervision of a veterinarian
Owner of farm animals or owner's employee
Nebraska The use of any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy or fertility or for correcting sterility or infertility
Veterinary Surgery
Animal Therapy- by a licensed animal therapist with a letter of referral from a licensed veterinarian Owner of livestock or a bona fide farm or ranch employee may perform retrievable embryo transplantation on a bovine including recovering, freezing, and transferring embryos, any act of vaccination, surgery, pregnancy testing, or the administration of drugs in the treatment of domestic animals under his or her custody or ownership
Dehorning or castrating livestock, not to include Equidae
Retrievable transplantation of embryos on bovine, including recovering, freezing, and transferring, if the procedure is performed by a person who holds a doctorate degree in animal science with an emphasis in reproductive physiology, and can show proof of valid professional liability insurance
Nevada Embryo Collection
Testing for Pregnancy or for correcting sterility or infertility
Acupuncture
Dentistry
Chiropractic procedures
Surgery, including cosmetic surgery
To the gratuitous castrating, dehorning or vaccinating of domesticated animals nor to the gratuitous treatment of diseased animals by friends or neighbors of the owner thereof, except that all vaccinations for zoonotic diseases must be administered by a licensed veterinarian or a person under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian
Accepted livestock management practices
Animal Owner or Employee
Animal chiropractor or physical therapist with certification under direction of veterinarian
Teeth Cleaning
New Hampshire Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
The use of any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy, or for correcting sterility, or infertility
Acupuncture
Surgical embryo transfers
Physical Therapy: The Board of Veterinary Medicine has jurisdiction over physical therapists practicing on animals. A physical therapist may be certified by the Board to perform animal physical therapy. In order to treat an animal, he or she must receive a referral from a licensed veterinarian. An animal physical therapist treating an animal shall provide to the referring veterinarian: (1) a written evaluation within 7 days after initial evaluation; (2) any additional progress notes every 30 days; and (3) notice of discharge or termination of treatment
Accepted livestock management practices
Animal owner or employee
Equine Farrier Services
Bovine Hoof Trimming
Equine Massage
Equine filing/floating
New Jersey Embryo transfer
Surgery
Dentistry
Animal Owner
Artificial insemination
New Mexico The use of any procedure for artificial insemination, testing for pregnancy, diagnosing and treating sterility or infertility
Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Dentistry
Chiropractic
Physical therapy
Acupuncture
Acupressure
Homeopathy
Therapeutic Massage
Embryo transfer
Preventive veterinary dental procedures including but not limited to the removal of calculus, soft deposits, plaque and stains; the smoothing, filing, polishing of tooth surfaces, or floating or dressing of equine teeth, shall be performed only by licensed veterinarians or under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian.
Teeth Cleaning
Accepted livestock management practices
Owner or employee
Veterinary technicians or persons holding or training for valid permits for artificial insemination or diagnosing pregnancy
Chiropractic, physical therapy, acupuncture, acupressure and embryo transfer under the direct supervision of licensed veterinarian
New York Veterinary Surgery
Dental conditions
Subcutaneous insertion of a microchip intended to be used to identify an animal
Floating of equine teeth
Licensed dentist under direct veterinary supervision
North Carolina Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Animal Owner or employee
Dehorn or castrate food animals
Providing for or assistance in the practice of artificial insemination
Farrier or person actively engaged in the activity or profession of shoeing hooved animals as long as his or her actions are limited to the art of shoeing hooved animals or trimming, clipping, or maintaining hooves
North Dakota The use of any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy, or for correcting sterility or infertility
Veterinary Surgery
Obstetrics
Dentistry
Chiropractic
Acupuncture
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Livestock owner and employees
Embryo transfers on cows
Animal owner
Ohio Surgery
Dentistry
Complementary alternative and integrative therapies
Surgical Embryo transfer
Non-surgical embryo transfer by animal owner or owner's designee under direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian
Animal Owner
Accepted Livestock Management Practices including: Acts of tagging, ear notching, hoof trimming, deworming, branding, artificial insemination, including semen collection, preparation and freezing.
Owner's agent may perform with the advice and consent of a licensed veterinarian who has provided training and oversight consistent with standard herd management practices: castration, tail docking, non-surgical dehorning, intravenous fluid administration, pregnancy detection other than by rectal technique, medication and biological administration, except for those prohibited by law, and phlebotomy.
Oklahoma Surgery
Animal Chiropractic
Dentistry
Testing for pregnancy or correcting sterility or enhancing fertility
Complementary and alternative therapies including:
Physical therapy
Massage therapy
Osteopathic therapy
Energy therapies
Ayurveda
Aromatherapy
Flower remedy therapy
Holistic medicine
Homeopathy
Nutritional therapy
Phytotherapy
Complimentary and alternative medicine may be performed under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian
Licensed chiropractors certified by the Board of Chiropractic Examiners may engage in animal chiropractic diagnosis and treatment – which includes vertebral subluxation complex and spinal manipulation
Non-certified chiropractors may provide chiropractic treatment including vertebral subluxation complex and spinal manipulation to an animal referred by a licensed veterinarian
All chiropractic physicians certified by the Board in the practice of animal chiropractic diagnosis and treatment shall be issued a certification card, and must carry the certification card with them at all times.
Animal husbandry, dehorning, branding, tagging or notching ears, teeth floating, farriery, pregnancy checking, collecting semen, preparing semen, freezing semen, castrating, worming, vaccinating, injecting or artificial insemination of farm animals or the acts or conduct of a person advising with respect to nutrition, feeds or feeding
Animal owner or employee
Individuals certified in animal massage therapy who acquire liability insurance may engage in animal massage therapy after referral from a licensed veterinarian
Non-veterinary equine dental care (if provider is certified)
The State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners can certify an individual as a non-veterinary reproductive services technician beginning November 1, 2011
Oregon Surgery
Dental
Embryo transfer or pregnancy, sterility or fertility evaluation
Animal owner or agent or employee may perform veterinary medicine and surgery or dentistry - as well as dehorning and vaccinating cattle
Allied health professionals upon referral from a licensed veterinarian
Physical therapy with a referral
Preventive veterinary dental procedures including, but not limited to, the removal of calculus, soft deposits, plaque, and stains, or the smoothing, filing, or polishing of tooth surfaces shall be performed only by licensed veterinarians, certified veterinary technicians or veterinary assistants under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian
Teeth Cleaning
Pennsylvania Surgery, including cosmetic surgery
Dental
Any manual procedure upon an animal for the diagnosis or treatment of sterility or infertility of animals
Veterinary pathology
Implanting microchips as determined by the Board
Embryo transfer
Embryo transplantation when performed by an animal owner or his or her employee or when any person independently, with indirect veterinary supervision, implants any embryo into an animal
Animal owner or employee or agent
Normal husbandry practices on bovine, porcine, caprine, ovine or equine animals or avis
Farriery
Chiropractic, dental, dental hygiene and physical therapy procedures performed upon animals by licensed individuals in conjunction with the practice of veterinary medicine and under the direct supervision of a veterinarian
Grooming services
Rhode Island Dentistry
Surgery
Accepted Livestock Management and Animal Husbandry Practices
South Carolina Surgery, including cosmetic surgery
Perform a manual procedure for the diagnosis or treatment for sterility or infertility of an animal
Embryo transplants
Obstetrics
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Therapeutic options or alternate therapies including:
Acupuncture
Manipulation and adjustment
Magnetic field therapy
Holistic medicine
Homeopathy
Herbology/naturopathy
Massage
Physical therapy
Animal owner or regular employee
Artificial insemination
Veterinarians may delegate the performance of procedures, therapeutic options and alternate therapies, under certain conditions
Floating Teeth
South Dakota Surgery
Manipulation
Any branches of the practice of veterinary medicine
Livestock owner or employee or free service
Veterinary livestock assistants registered by the State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners who work under the supervision of a veterinarian licensed in the State of South Dakota to perform spaying of cattle and administration of biologics and pharmaceuticals under the order of their supervising veterinarians
Tennessee Surgery, including cosmetic
Complementary, alternative, and integrative therapies
Any manual, mechanical, biological, or chemical procedure for the testing of pregnancy, or for the management or treatment of sterility or infertility
Obstetrics
Dentistry
All other branches or specialties of veterinary medicine
Acupuncture
Chiropractic therapy
Laser therapy
Rehabilitative therapy
Ultrasound
Embryo transfer from person's own food animal
Animal owner or regular employee
Castration
Dehorning
Accepted livestock management practices as defined by rule
Manual procedure for testing of pregnancy in bovines by farmers not compensated and results are for owner's use only
Artificial insemination of livestock
Massage therapy (section expires 7/2018)
Teeth floating using non-motorized equipment by employee of veterinarian under certain conditions
Texas Dentistry
Surgery
Reproduction and obstetrics
Ophthalmology
Dermatology
Cardiology
Any other discipline or specialty of veterinary medicine
Acupuncture
Homeopathy
Embryo Transfer
Musculoskeletal manipulation and chiropractic may be practiced under the supervision of a veterinarian
Animal owner or agent
Accepted livestock management practices approved by the Board
Castration, docking, Dehorning
Artificially inseminating livestock
Shoeing a Horse
Equine dentistry may be performed by a licensed equine dental provider
Teeth Cleaning
Utah Surgery
Dentistry
Implantation of any electronic device for the purpose of establishing or maintaining positive identification of animals
Animal owner or employee
Vaccination of poultry
Pullorum testing
Typhoid testing of poultry
Related poultry disease control activity
Nonsurgical bovine artificial insemination
Certified licensed chiropractor with veterinary referral
Certified licensed physical therapist with veterinary referral
Certified licensed massage therapist with veterinary referral
Certified licensed acupuncturist with veterinary referral
Vermont Surgery
Any manual or mechanical procedure for testing for pregnancy or for correcting sterility, or infertility
Dental operations
Teeth Cleaning
Animal owner or regular employee
Accepted livestock management practices and animal husbandry practices such as:
Artificial insemination
Dehorning
Clipping and shoeing animals
Trimming feet and use of handheld files, rasps or other devices to remove overgrowth from the teeth of horses (floating) but not including power-assisted filing or power-assisted floating, the extraction of teeth or other procedures that invade the soft tissue of the mouth
Virginia Surgery
Dentistry
Embryo transfer
Testing for Pregnancy
Correcting Sterility or Infertility
Animal owner or employee
Registered equine dental technicians under regulation of the Board of Veterinary Medicine with veterinary supervision in some circumstances
Massage therapy or physical therapy may be delegated by a veterinarian to persons qualified by training and experience by an order from the veterinarian
Persons permitted or authorized by the Department of Game and Inland Fisheries may provide care for wildlife
Animal owner or employee
Washington Surgery
Dentistry
Any manual procedure for the diagnosis of pregnancy, sterility, or infertility upon livestock
Implementation of microchip
Animal owner or employee
Castrating and dehorning of cattle, castrating and docking of sheep, castrating of swine, caponizing of poultry, or artificial insemination of animals
Owner assisted in practice gratuitously
Certified animal massage therapists
West Virginia Surgery
Dentistry
Dental operations by a licensed veterinarian or veterinary assistant under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian
Accepted livestock management practices
Animal owner or employee
Wisconsin Surgery Artificial insemination
Pregnancy examinations of animals if engaged in prior to 2/11/1968
Castrating male livestock including bovine animals, sheep, goats, swine, farm-raised deer and equine animals
Dehorning or branding
Wyoming Surgery, including cosmetic
Dentistry
Physiologically examine or to correct sterility or infertility
Animal owner or employee
Persons approved by the Board to perform artificial insemination, or embryo transplant or nonsurgical embryo transfer on animals, excepting dogs and cats

Source: Staff Research, AVMA Division of State Advocacy & Leadership
Contact: AVMA Division of State Ad​vocacy & Leadership